Association of Polyaminergic Loci With Anxiety, Mood Disorders, and Attempted Suicide

The authors genotyped 63 polymorphisms, across 4 polyaminergic genes, in 1255 French-Canadian individuals, followed longitudinally for 22 years. Univariate associations with anxiety, mood disorders, & attempted suicide as assessed in early adulthood were examined. The involvement of gene-environment interactons in terms of childhood abuse were investigated & internalizing & externalizing symptoms as endophenotypes mediating these […]

Serum Typtophan Ration and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents: a Prospective Study

The purpose of this study was to conduct the first prospective examination of the utility of the tryptophan ratio along with clinical variables in predicting suicidal behavior in high-risk & reference adolescents. Adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD) & prior suicidal attempts, those with AUDs & without suicide attempts, & community controls with neither of […]

Biogenic Amine Turnover and Serum Cholesterol in Suicide Attempt

This study examined biological correlates of suicidal behavior. In a sample of 111 suicide attempters admitted to a Greek general hospital, the authors studied the turnover of neurotransmitters by measuring the urinary output of the main metabolites of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline & serum cholesterol, & compared them to 62 healthy controls. Urinary noradrenaline was significantly […]

Suicide as an Indicium of Biologically-Based Brain Disease

Suicide is not an illness; it is a behaviour that may in some instances be a symptom of a psychiatric disorder or an indicant of impulsivity resulting from neuropharmacologic changes that are genetically determined. Slaby reviews the literature supporting the fact that suicide results from biologically-based brain disease & outlines avenues of research to further […]

Monoamines and Suicidal Behavior (IN: Violence and Suicidality: Perspectives in Clinical and Psychobiological Research, edited by H M van Praag, R Plutchik & A Apter)

This chapter presents a comprehensive review of studies & indicates there is now a great deal of evidence suggesting that disturbance of monoamine regulation may play a role in suicidal behavior. Decreased serotonin turnover has been strongly implicated, particularly in relation to impulsive & violent behavior. The need for further studies & possible areas of […]

Genetic and Biologic Risk Factors for Suicide in Depressive Disorders

Recent data suggests there may be genetic & biologic risk factors for suicide. This paper reviews studies from clinical populations, twins, the Amish, as well as data from the Iowa-500 & Danish-American adoption studies which suggest that there may be a genetic factor predisposing to suicide. This paper also reviews neurochemical data from cerebrospinal fluid, […]

Clinical Applications of Biological Aspects of Suicide (IN: Suicide: Guidelines for Assessment, Management, and Treatment, edited by B Bongar)

Author provides an updated overview of 15 biological measures & considerations with potential clinical use for risk assessment & suicide prevention. The most consistent candidate for potentail use has been serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. None of the measures developed to date have clear and present role in suicide risk assessment. Author concludes that […]

Psychopharmacotherapy of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior (IN: Suicide: Guidelines for Assessment, Management, and Treatment, edited by B Bongar)

This chapter reviews the neurochemical basis of violent behavior including amines & their metabolites, receptor binding & other neuroendocrine measures, & reports on medication use. Impulsive violent behavior is more associated with disturbances of serotonin metabolism than disorders of mood. Not all suicidal behavior is psychopharmacologically responsive. Psychopharmacotherapy must be supplemted by other therapeutic interventions […]

The Role of Monoamines in Suicidal Behavior

This study looks at the role monoamine levels, i.e. serotonin, play in suicidal behaviour. The findings, some of which are in contrast to what has usually been found, indicate that other aspects than diagnosis or suicide attempt method must be taken into consideration when performing amine metabolite studies: for example, other biochemical factors, impulsivity and […]

Increased Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor Concentrations in Suicide Attempters

Several biochemical parameters such as monoamines and corticosteroids are considered to play a role in the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms in mood disorders. It has also been proposed that disturbances of the immune system may be responsible for mental disorders. This study clearly shows that an imbalance of the immune system was present in psychiatric patients […]

D2 Dopamine Receptor Gene and Alcoholism

This study analyzed 2 subpopulations of alocoholics residing in limited geographic regions in France to test the association between the A1 allele of the D2R dopamine receptor gene and alcoholism. Results of gene analysis indicate an association between the A1 DRD2 allele and alcoholism. (26 refs.)

Biology of Elderly Suicide

This article describes age-related changes in the central nervous system pertinent to the biology of suicide, then reviews post-mortem biological studies of the brains of suicide & suicide attempters. As suicide attempts in the elderly are characterized by the use of violent means, biologic studies of impulsive violence are discussed. Data on the effect of […]

New Perspectives on the Treatment of Depression

This supplement discusses the treatment of depression. Articles include: 1) depression in the elderly; 2) RIMA: a safe concept in the treatment of depression with moclobemide; 3) a double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of moclobemide and amitriptyline in the treatment of depression; & 4) the efficacy of reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors in depressive illness.

Alterations in Monoamine Receptors in the Brain of Suicide Victims

Using in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiography, the binding of 125 I-lysergic acid diethylamide & 125 I-pindolol was compared with slide-mounted sections from the prefrontal & the temporal cortex of a group of suicide victims, matched to control specimens. Binding to both 125 I-lysergic acid diethylamide & 125 I-pindolol was increased in the prefrontal cortex of […]

Prediction of Suicidal Behavior From Biologic Tests

Biochemical prevalence in suicidal behavior was investigated by evaluating 61 patients with or without repeated suicidal behaviour before or the year after an index attempt. Lumbar punctures were performed after a mean wash-out period of 16 days after admission, & complete cerebrospinal fluid & urinary biochemical data were available for all subjects. Clusters of clinical […]

Repeated Measures of Platelet MAO Activity and 5-HT in a Group of Suicidal Women

The whole blood serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) & monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in 9 female chronically suicidal outpatients was measured. Subjects were referred for a biweekly group training course aimed at modifying depressive & suicidal cognitions & behaviour. Data confirm that platelet MAO activity behaved as a trait marker & 5-HT behaved as a state marker […]

Platelet Imipramine Binding in Depressed Children and Adolescents

In this study, kinetic constants of platelet imipramine binding were determined in youths with major depression & controls. Those who were actively depressed had significantly fewer imipramine binding sites (B-max) than recovering depressives & controls. Actively depressed males, but not females, had fewer imipramine binding sites than both of their sex-matched comparison groups. Neither age, […]

Brain Gamma-Aminobutyrate Transaminase and Monoamine Oxidase Activities in Suicide Victims

The activity of gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) & monoamine oxidase (MAO-A & -B) was measured in the brains of 19 suicide victims & 23 controls. Suicides were classified according to the use of violent or nonviolent methods & to the presence or absence of a known history of depressive disorder. No difference was found between the […]

Dietary Tryptophan Ratio and Suicide: a Cross-National Study

Tested the hypothesis that low intake of tryptophan relative to certain other amino acids is associated with higher suicide rates, since tryptophan is the dietary precursor of serotonin & low levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid have been reported to be associated with suicide. 32 countries were matched on the basis of dietary tryptophan […]

Platelet Serotonin-2 Receptor Binding Sites in Depression and Suicide

This article presents the results of a study about the role of serotonin-2 (5HT-2) receptors in depression and suicide. The authors found significant increases in the 125-I-LSD binding sites in the platelets of depressed patients compared to those of a normal control group. They also found that depressed patients with a recent history of suicide […]

Role of Serotonin in Depression

The author reviews the evidence which supports the role of serotonin (5-HT) in depression. He discussed the effect of 5-HT on mood, affect & somatic functions, as well as discussing CSF 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, plasma tryptophan, blood platelet 5-HT mechanisms, neuroendocrine challenge studies, 5-HT uptake inhibitors, & serotonin & suicide. He concludes that 5-HT may be […]

Biochemical Aspects of Suicide (IN: Suicide Over the Life Cycle, ed. by S J Blumenthal and D J Kupfer)

This article discusses the promising research on biochemistry & suicide. The authors assert that an approach that examines suicide from a biochemical perspective offers the hope of improved identification of suicidal persons, & the promise of new prevention strategies. They include a review of studies on biochemical factors such as 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid & serotonin. (VM)

Brain Markers and Suicide: Can a Relationship Be Found?

This article briefly reviews 12 studies that have reported levels of neurotransmitters & their metabolites in suicide victims. Receptor studies are also summarized. The studies include examinations of the role of serotonin, the pinael gland, imipramine, etc. The authors conclude that although neurochemical reseach is not comprehensive enough yet to be utilized, a postmortem test […]