Year: 2021 Source: International Journal of Social Psychiatry. (2021). 1-8. doi: 10.1177/00207640211027210. SIEC No: 20210700

Background: Each year, around 800,000 people die by suicide. The prevalence of suicidal behaviors is much higher when suicidal attempts and persistent self-injurious ideation are included. Therefore, suicide is a public health concern. Research has been sensitive to this problem, deepening the study of risk factors and the development of theoretical frameworks of suicidal behavior, with the aim of generating effective suicide prevention policies around the biopsychosocial model.

Aim: We aimed to explore the role of relational, community, and social factors in current suicide prevention strategies.

Method: Studies of risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior and the consequent development of theoretical frameworks were reviewed to verify if this knowledge was really used in suicide prevention policies.

Results: Studies of risk and protective factors focus mainly on the individual, while theoretical frameworks emphasize the role of the relational, community, and social. Suicide prevention strategies more closely follow individual models derived from studies of risk factors.

Conclusions: Suicide prevention strategies should broaden their individual narrative to include relational, community, and social interventions as anti-suicide measures.