Veterinarians are commonly exposed to occupational stressors, including excessive workload and financial constraints. These stressors can lead to psychological distress, which typically results in mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and burnout and can even culminate in suicide attempts or suicide deaths. Risk factors associated with poor mental health and high rates of suicide in veterinary practitioners include continuous exposure to challenging scenarios, such as interpersonal conflicts, performing euthanasia, and easy access to lethal means of suicide, such as opioids and anesthetics. The previous studies highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of predisposing factors, mental health-related improvements in the professional environment, and the subsequent establishment of primary mental health-related care policies. Effective ways to promote mental health and prevent suicide may include social support, resilience, developing coping skills, promoting a healthy work environment, and discouraging perfectionist behaviors. This review aimed to summarize findings in studies that have investigated mental health and suicide in veterinarians and veterinary students and highlight measures that could be implemented as options for mental health promotion and suicide prevention.