Background: Emerging research on suicidal behaviors among adolescents in Ghana has been conducted mainly among senior high school students. Aims: We aimed to estimate the 12-month prevalence of suicide attempts and describe some of the general and gender-specific associated factors among adolescents attending junior high schools (JHSs) in Ghana. Method: We analyzed data from the 2012 Ghana Global School-Based Student Health Survey. The sample consisted of 1,437 adolescents aged 12–17 years. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess the associations between 12-month suicide attempts and some psychosocial factors. Results: The overall 12-month prevalence estimate of suicide attempts was 27.6%, with comparable estimates between males (26.4%) and females (28.8%). In the final adjusted multivariable models, bullying victimization (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.53, 4.31), alcohol use (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.41), and having no close friends (AOR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.75) were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts among males, whereas anxiety (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.54, 4.29) and being sexually active (AOR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.25, 4.68) were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts in females. Limitations: The correlational nature of this study did not allow for causal inferences. Conclusion: The study underscores adolescent suicide attempts as a public health concern in Ghana.