Nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior occurs in the general human population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Some rhesus macaques also develop self-injurious behavior (SIB) as adolescents or young adults. In both of these cases, the development of harmful behaviors is idiopathic, only coming to the attention of physicians or veterinarians after the disorder is established. Thus, a combination of retrospective, statistical, and empirical procedures are used to understand this disorder. Here, we identify concordances between macaques and humans across five different levels of analysis, (1) form and prevalence, (2) etiology, (3) triggering events, (4) function/maintenance, and (5) therapeutic intervention, and show the value of the cross-translational model (macaques to humans and humans to macaques) in understanding this phenomenon.
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