How often, or how many ways: Clarifying the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and suicidality.
Turner, B.~~Layden, B.~~et al.
This study clarified the association of maladaptive, potentially self-damaging behaviors with suicidality. Specifically, we examined whether greater frequency (i.e., how often) or greater versatility (i.e., how many ways) of several self-damaging behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), substance use, and disordered eating, increased risk for suicide. Results suggest that the versatility rather than frequency of self-damaging behaviors is most robustly associated with suicide risk. Engaging in multiple methods of NSSI and using a greater number of illicit substances were positively associated with suicide risk.