On the Phenomenology & Nosology of the Presuicidal Syndrome
In 1949, Ringel examined 745 cases of suicide attempters to determine their psychic state immediately prior to their suicide act. In most cases he found facts to occur with such regularity that they were summarized under the term “Presuicidal Syndrome” consisting of: constriction; inhibited aggression; & suicidal fantasies. These 3 factors reinforce each other. In the years since then, experience has confirmed the diagnostic value of this syndrome. 3 refs.