Introduction People report multiple motives for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), but few studies have examined how these motives relate to one another. This study identified person-centered classes of NSSI motives, their NSSI and psychopathological correlates, and their utility in predicting future NSSI across two samples. Methods Participants were adolescents and young adults (aged 15–35) with recent NSSI recruited from online forums (n = 155, Sample 1) or the community (n = 127, Sample 2). Participants completed measures of NSSI, emotion regulation difficulties, borderline personality disorder (BPD), depression, and reported on their NSSI over 12 months. Results Latent profile analyses yielded five classes in each sample: low interpersonal, self-punishment/interpersonal, moderate intra/interpersonal, high intra/interpersonal, and mainly interpersonal motives. Classes were not associated with lifetime NSSI characteristics, but highly motivated participants reported more severe depression and BPD symptoms, and greater emotion dysregulation than low-motivated participants. Those in the mainly interpersonal (Sample 1) and self-punishment/interpersonal (Sample 2) motives classes reported greater NSSI frequency during follow-up. Conclusions This study identified five classes of NSSI motives. Participants who report multiple motives for NSSI may be more clinically severe, whereas those who report strong desires to communicate with others or punish themselves may be at the highest risk for more frequent NSSI over time.