The association between past-year residential transience (frequent moving) and suicidal ideation among a nationally representative sample of over 190,000 U.S. adults was evaluated. Suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were more prevalent among transient adults. Among adults without major depressive episodes (MDE), transience was associated with 70% to 90% greater odds of suicidal ideation compared to nontransient adults. Among adults with MDE, transience was associated with a 60% to 80% increased odds of suicidal ideation compared to nontransient adults. Residential transience may be an indicator for increased suicide risk even in the absence of depression.