Previous studies have highlighted a strong association between bullying victimization and suicide ideation. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship. Building on the classic General Strain Theory, the current study investigated the chained mediating roles of school adaptation and stress response and the moderating role of gender on the relationship between bullying victimization and suicide ideation among Chinese adolescents. A total of 7159 junior high school students (46.9% female, mean age = 13.91 years) were recruited to participate in this study and completed measures of demographic information, bullying victimization, school adaptation, stress response, and suicide ideation. The results found that: (1) There were significant correlations between bullying victimization, school adaptation, stress response, gender, and suicide ideation. (2) Bullying victimization positively predicted suicide ideation. (3) Suicide ideation related to bullying victimization via school adaptation, via stress response, and serially via school adaptation and stress response. (4) Gender moderated the relationship between school adaptation and stress response. This negative relationship was stronger for females. These findings expand the understanding of the theoretical mechanism underlying the relationship between bullying victimization and suicide ideation. It also highlights the crucial roles of school adaptation, stress response, and gender in designing bullying-related and suicide-related interventions among Chinese adolescents.