This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with suicidal ideation among university students in Bangladesh. We collected cross-sectional data from 407 students aged between 18 and 27 years at Jahangirnagar University (Dhaka, Bangladesh), using a convenience sampling technique. Of the total sample, 13.8% reported having suicidal ideation during the past 12 months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being female, being a fifth-year student, lower socioeconomic status, exposure to traumatic events, family suicide history, and depression were associated with suicidal ideation. The findings emphasize the need for appropriate support services for university students with a focus on mental health wellbeing and suicide prevention.