The interpersonal psychological theory of suicide provides a useful framework for considering the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide. Researchers propose that NSSI increases acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that both NSSI frequency and the IPTS acquired capability construct (decreased fear of death and increased pain tolerance) would separately interact with suicidal ideation to predict suicide attempts. Undergraduate students (N = 113) completed self-report questionnaires, and a subsample (n = 66) also completed a pain sensitivity task. NSSI frequency significantly moderated the association between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, in a separate model, acquired capability did not moderate this relationship. Our understanding of the relationship between suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior can be enhanced by factors associated with NSSI that are distinct from the acquired capability construct.