Identification of risk factors for suicide and insights for developing suicide prevention technologies: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Jha, S., Chan, G., & Orji, R.
Suicide is a termite that engulfs close to seven hundred thousand people worldwide each year. Existing work on risk factors that predict suicide lacks statistical associations, does not consider most countries, and has a wide range of risk factor domains. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to enhance our current understanding of suicidality by identifying risk factors that are most strongly associated with suicide and their impact on developing technological interventions for suicide prevention. A search strategy was carried out on four databases: (1) PsycINFO, (2) IEEE Xplore, (3) the ACM Digital Library, and (4) PubMed, and twenty-five studies were included based on the inclusion criteria. Factors statistically associated with suicide are any diagnosed mental disorder, adverse life events, past suicide attempts, low education level, loneliness or high levels of isolation, bipolar disorder, depression, multiple chronic health conditions, family history of suicide, sexual trauma, and being female. Domain-wise, comorbid disorders, and behavior-related risk factors are most strongly associated with suicide. We present a new hierarchical model of risk factors for suicide that advances our understanding of suicide and its causes. Finally, we present open research directions and considerations for developing suicide prevention technologies.