Defeat and entrapment have been highlighted in the development of suicidal ideation within the Integrated Motivational–Volitional model of suicidal behavior. Research suggests that entrapment has to be differentiated into internal and external entrapment. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between defeat, internal, external entrapment, and suicidal ideation within and prospectively over measurements.
A sample of 308 psychiatric inpatients (53% female) aged 18 to 81 years (M = 36.92, SD = 14.30) was assessed for the four constructs after admission to a psychiatric ward and six, nine, and twelve months later. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine associations.
Defeat was associated with (a change in) internal and external entrapment. Defeat predicted a change in internal entrapment over time. Defeat and internal, but not external, entrapment were associated with (a change in) suicidal ideation. Internal entrapment was able to predict suicidal ideation. Internal entrapment and defeat predicted a change in suicidal ideation over time.
Results highlight the importance to distinguish between internal and external entrapment, and their specific association with suicidal ideation. Perceptions of internal entrapment are of central relevance when experiencing suicidal ideation and should be considered in clinical practice.