Year: 2023 Source: Heliyon. (2023). 9(9), e20083. SIEC No: 20231981

Background: Suicide is a major public health concern worldwide. Iran is no exception, with suicide rates increasing in recent years. Understanding the characteristics and related factors of suicide attempts can help inform suicide prevention efforts in Iran.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who attempted suicide and were admitted to the poisoning emergency of an intoxication center in Shiraz, Iran, between November 2019 and January 2020. Data were collected using data sheets  containing study variables completed by oral interviewers and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: The study included 302 individuals, with the majority being females (63.6%), and the mean age was 28.19 (SD 19.25) years. The majority of patients were living in urban areas (82.5%) and unmarried (60.9%). Medical drug abuse was the most  common method of self-poisoning (76.5%), followed by narcotics (15.6%). Suicide attempts were predominantly carried out at night (59.9%) and on working days (78.5%). Most patients had no history of previous suicidal attempts (64.2%), psychiatric  problems (64.6%), or physical illnesses (84.8%). Female gender (P = 0.017) and the presence of an underlying disease (P = 0.016) were the two risk factors significantly associated with suicide on non-working days.
Conclusion: Our study highlights the need for comprehensive suicide prevention strategies that consider the complex interplay of individual, sociocultural, and environmental factors that contribute to suicidal behaviors. The high proportion of female suicide attempters and the timing of suicide attempts suggest the need for gender-specific suicide prevention programs and focused suicide prevention efforts during high-risk periods. Additionally, the association between physical illnesses and suicide attempts underscores the importance of integrated mental and physical health care services.