Background: In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, the distinction between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) is highlighted in the section of conditions for further study. Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the correlates of people who presented to emergency departments (ED) with NSSI compared with those who presented with SA and no self-harm or suicidal ideation (no SH or SI). Method: Data came from 4,772 presentations to ED of tertiary care hospitals in Manitoba, Canada, between January 2009 and June 2012. Chart reviews were conducted for presentations with NSSI (n = 158), and a sample of SA (n = 172) and no SH or SI (n = 173). Results: NSSI was associated with borderline personality traits/disorders, previous history of SH, and aggression/impulsivity compared with no SH or SI. SA was associated with a lower likelihood of adjustment disorder (OR = 0.58; 95 % CI [0.34, 0.99]) and previous history of NSSI (OR = 0.30; 95 % CI [0.17, 0.53]) compared with NSSI. Limitations: A limitation of this study is its cross-sectional design. Conclusion: Given the distress associated with NSSI, the findings highlight the need for treatment plans that address all those who present to ED with SH regardless of intent.