Mental health in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review

The COVID-19 pandemic caused immediate and far-reaching disruption to society, the economy, and health-care services. We synthesised evidence on the effect of the pandemic on mental health and mental health care in high-income European countries. We included 177 longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional studies comparing prevalence or incidence of mental health problems, mental health symptom severity […]

Patterns of mental healthcare provision in rural areas: A demonstration study in Australia and Europe

Introduction: Mental healthcare systems are primarily designed to urban populations. However, the specific characteristics of rural areas require specific strategies, resource allocation, and indicators which fit their local conditions. This planning process requires comparison with other rural areas. This demonstration study aimed to describe and compare specialized rural adult mental health services in Australia, Norway, and […]

Sociodemographic variables most associated with suicidal behaviour and suicide methods in Europe and America: A systematic review

This Systematic Review is thought to deepen the relation between sociodemographic variables most associated with suicidal behaviour and suicide methods in Europe and America. A research was made from articles and reviews published between 2005-2015 in PsycINFO, Medline, Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, and SciELO. Thanks to it, we retrieved 5,222 records which were […]

Socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality in European urban areas before and during the economic recession

Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of the financial crisis on inequalities in suicide mortality in European urban areas. The objective of the study was to analyse the trend in area socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality in nine European urban areas before and after the beginning of the financial crisis. Methods: This ecological study of trends […]

What are reasons for the large gender differences in the lethality of suicide acts? An epidemiological analysis in four European countries

BACKGROUND: In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors […]

Religiousness as a predictor of suicide: An analysis of 162 European regions

Research on religion as a protective factor has been marked by four recurrent limitations: (1) an overemphasis on the United States, a nation where religiosity is relatively high; (2) a neglect of highly secularized zones of the world, where religiousness may be too weak to affect suicide; (3) restriction of religiousness to religious affiliation, a […]

Suicidal behaviour in Europe: Results from the WHO/EURO MultiCentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour.

Suicide and suicidal behaviour are major problems in many countries around the world, and the differences between countries provide vital information for determining the most effective strategies for suicide prevention. The WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour is one of the largest ever research endeavours looking into the epidemiology, causes and prevention of suicidal behaviour, […]

Help-seeking behaviour following school-based screening for current suicidality among European adolescents.

Purpose To screen and clinically interview European adolescents reporting current suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempt) and investigate attendance at the clinical interview. Methods The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Project was carried out in 11 European countries. A baseline questionnaire was completed in school by 12,395 adolescents (mean age 14.9; SD […]

The impact of fiscal austerity on suicide mortality: Evidence across the ‘Eurozone periphery.’


Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe: 2000-2011.

Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation. There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in […]

Adolescents’ self-reported suicide attempts, self-harm thoughts and their correlates across 17 European countries.

Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in Europe. Self-harm thoughts and behaviours are documented precursors of completed suicide. It is therefore of great importance to investigate the prevalence of suicide thoughts and attempts and their correlates, with the aim of preventing this major life-threatening public health problem. This study provides cross-national European […]

Multiple substance use and self-reported suicide attempts by adolescents in 16 European countries.

Substance use and suicide attempts are high-risk behaviors in adolescents, with serious impacts on health and well-being. Although multiple substance use among young people has become a common phenomenon, studies of its association with suicide attempts are scarce. The present study examines the association between multiple substance use and self-reported suicide attempts in a large […]

Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: An ecological study of twenty-four European countries.

This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the […]

Suicide prevention for youth – a mental health awareness program: lessons learned from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) intervention study.

Background: The Awareness program was designed as a part of the EU-funded Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) intervention study to promote mental health of adolescents in 11 European countries by helping them to develop problem-solving skills and encouraging them to self-recognize the need for help as well as how to help peers […]

Developing social capital in implementing acomplex intervention: A process evaluation of theearly implementation of a suicide preventionintervention in four European countries.

Background: Variation in the implementation of complex multilevel interventions can impact on their delivery and outcomes. Few suicide prevention interventions, especially multilevel interventions, have included evaluation of both the process of implementation as well as outcomes. Such evaluation is essential for the replication ofinterventions, for interpreting and understanding outcomes, and for improving implementation science. This […]

Antidepressant utilization and suicide in Europe: an ecological multi-national study.


Setting up suicide prevention plans at the local level: The methodology of focus groups with stakeholders.


Role of social welfare in European suicide prevention.


Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries.

Article looks at drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found and that suicide by drug overdose is prevetable.

Respiratory Function and Other Biological Risk Factors for Completed Suicide: 40 Years of Follow-Up of European Cohorts of the Seven Countries Study

In the prospective cohort of the Seven Countries Study, 5,321 middle-aged men from Finland, Serbia, Italy, & Greece were tested to assess which biological risk factors independently identified subjects at increased risk of suicide. Completed suicide was assessed during 40 years of follow-up. Biological cardiovascular risk factors (including forced vital capacity & height) were tested […]

Background Document for The Thematic Conference on Prevention of Depression and Suicide Under the European Pact for Mental Health and Wellbeing

This document provided background information for a conference on the prevention of depression & suicide held in Budapest in December 2009. Topics discussed include: the relevance for the European Union; strategies, policy frameworks & targets; addressing determinants & risk factors; mainstreaming mental health in health disciplines; building partnerships with other policies & sectors; e-health, internet […]

Gender Issues in Suicide Rates, Trends and Methods Among Youths Aged 15-24 in 15 European Countries

Countries included Belgium, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, & Switzerland.

The European Alliance Against Depression: a Multilevel Approach to the Prevention of Suicidal Behavior

This article describes the creation of the European Alliance Against Depression in 2004 & the cornerstone of the alliance, which is a shared multi-level approach that includes interventions on 4 levels: education of primary care physicians; a professional public relations campaign, training of community facilitators, & interventions with affected persons & high-risk groups. Several countries […]