Youth suicide in Canada: Distinctions among boys and girls

In Canada, boys account for almost three quarters of suicides among those aged 15-24 years. However, non-fatal suicide-related behaviours also onset in youth but are more common in girls. Thus far, there has been little empirical investigation of what produces this gender paradox. This report summarizes two recently published studies in which ICES tackles the […]

Contemporary classifications of suicidal behaviors: A systematic literature review

Background: The absence of agreed-upon terminology, definitions, and operational classifications has hampered research in the field of suicidology for many decades. Aims and Method: We systematically reviewed contemporary classifications of suicidal behavior using the scope of the classification (comprehensive vs. restricted or single behaviors), and the presence or absence of a classification scheme and an […]

Self-injury–placement in mental disorders classifications, risk factors and primary mechanisms: Review of the literature.

Self-injury is a common phenomenon among adolescents and young adults, however its prevalence in clinical population is estimated at 40–80%, especially in regard to patients during puberty. Symptoms usually appear between 12th and 14th year of age, and their average duration is approx. 2 years. According to accepted sociocultural norms self-injury can be regarded as […]

Effects of race and precipitating event on suicide versus nonsuicide death classification in a college sample.

Race group differences in suicide death classification in a sample of 109 Black and White university students were examined. Participants were randomly assigned to read three vignettes for which the vignette subjectsÕ race (only) varied. The vignettes each described a circumstance (terminal illness, academic failure, or relationship difficulties) that preceded the vignette subjectÕs ambiguously premature […]

Exploratory Data Mining Analysis Identifying Subgroups of Patients With Depression who are at High Risk for Suicide

Using an empirically based decision tree analysis for a large national sample of Veterans Affairs health system patients treated for depression, the authors identified subgroups with particularly high or low rates of suicide. 887,859 patients treated for depression between April 1999 & September 2004 were identified. The exploratory data analysis produced a decision tree with […]

Suicide in Mass Murderers and Serial Killers

Research carried out by the author on suicide in mass murderers is reviewed. The incidence of suicide in rampage murderers (34.7%) is much higher than in serial killers (4.4%). Whereas all of the suicides in mass murderers occurred during attempts to arrest them, 52% of the suicides in serial killers occurred after arrest. Case studies […]

A Typology of Suicide by Police Incidents (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

The authors created a typology of suicide by police by separating 143 such incidents from a database of 174 police shooting incidents. The 143 incidents consisted of 3 categories: direct confrontations; disturbed interventions; & criminal interventions. Direct confrontations presented a lower level of danger to police, but there was a high variability within this category. […]

Study of the Outcome of Suicide Attempts: Characteristics of Hospitalization in a Psychiatric Ward Group, Critical Care Center Group, and Non-Hospitalized Group

The outcomes of 1348 Japanese individuals who attempted suicide & visited the critical care center or the psychiatric emergency department of the hospital were categorized into 3 groups. Physical, mental, & social characteristics were compared. The hospitalized groups, particularly those hospitalized in the critical care centre, were found to have biopsychosocially serious factors with regard […]

Can Novel Nosological Strategies aid in the Identification of Risk for Suicidal Behavior?

In this editorial, the authors discuss the way suicidal behaviour is currently classified in the DSM-IV – only as a symptom in the context of Major Depressive Episode or of Borderline Personality Disorder. They recommend that suicidal behaviour be considered a separate diagnostic category & documented on a sixth axis. (16 refs.)

Suicide – Part of a More Extensive Entity or a Group of Separate Phenomena

This presentation discussed whether suicide is part of a range of self-destructive behaviours or if it is a separate phenomena. It was asserted that concentrating on suicide alone is inadequate for research purposes as such as focus may neglect the precipitating events, life events, motivation, & the individual’s own concepts of life & death that […]

Prison and Jail Suicide: an Overview of the Research

Inmates in the custody of federal & provincial corrections facilities are considered to be a group at high risk of suicide. This paper provides a statistical profile of inmate suicides in Canada & examines some of the research into the key precipitating factors & causes involved in inmate suicide. It also discusses various intervention, treatment, […]

Homicide-Suicide in the Netherlands: an Epidemiology


Youths who Intentionally Practise Self-Harm. Review of the Recent Research 2001-2004


Heterogeneity of Borderline Personality Disorder: do the Number of Criteria met Make a Difference?

The authors examined whether the severity of borderline personality disorder, as measured by the number of criteria present, is associated with comorbidity of Axis I & Axis II diagnoses, as well as demographic factors & psychosocial functioning. 2300 psychiatric outpatients were interviewed. Approximately 10% of the patients were diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. There were […]

Trends in Adolescent Suicide Mortality in the WHO European Region

Trends in adolescent (15-19 years) suicide rates from 1979-1996 were compared with suicide trends in individuals 20 years & over in 30 countries & with trends in rates of deaths due to undetermined causes in adolescents in 17 countries of the World Health Organization European Region. In 21 of the 30 countries, male adolescent suicide […]

Maternal Filicide in Quebec

In an 8-year review (1991-1998) of all consecutive coroners’ files in Quebec, the authors identified 34 cases of victims who were killed by their mothers. There were 27 mothers in the sample, & 15 of them died by suicide after the filicide. A psychiatric motive was determined for more than 85% of the mothers, & […]

Adolescent Suicide Attempts – a Review

The literature on adolescent suicide attempts is reviewed. The demographic, familial, psycho-pathological features distinguishing this group from adolescents without suicidal behaviours are presented. Adolescent suicidal behaviours can be seen as maladaptive coping mechanisms engendered by a group of adolescents to escape from or show their distress. A fragile social support network is a significant predisposing […]

Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA): Classification of Suicidal Events in the FDA’s Pediatric Suicidal Risk Analysis of Antidepressants

To evaluate the link between antidepressants & suicidal behaviour & ideation in youth, adverse events from pediatric clinical trials were classified in order to identify suicidal events. The authors describe the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment, a standardized rating system. Adverse events from 25 clinical trials were systematically identified. Randomly assigned adverse events were […]

Pattern Analysis of Suicide Mortality Surveillance Data in Urban South Africa

The typical circumstances of suicide in post-apartheid urban South Africa are described. Data comprise suicide cases from all urban municipalities where an injury surveillance system has full coverage. Typical patterns were identified by means of a classification technique applied to 8 variables descriptive of the events, their victims, & the suicide level of the cities. […]

Antidepressants and Suicidal Behavior: Cause or Cure?

Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempt and Self-Harm in Individuals With a History of Psychiatric Hospitalization

To date, research on risk for self-harming behavior has been oflimited success. This has led to difficulty in predicting self-harm, anddeveloping effective intervention programs. The existing predictionliterature has focused on static risk factors, failed to adequately define or measure many important constructs, and has not yet developed predictionschemes of adequate accuracy. The current intervention literature […]

Ways of Pastmaking


Murder-Parasuicide: a Case Series in Western Australia

This article describes a case series of murder followed by suicide attempts. Examining this type of offender may help us better understand the group who complete murder followed by suicide. Research in this area will always be difficult given the rarity of the event and the retrospective approach, which is usually required.