The association among serum growth differentiation factor 15 level and suicidal ideation is dependent on testosterone deficiency in depressive patients

Background: Elevated levels of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and reduced levels of testosterone have been linked to depressive disorder, but whether they are also linked to suicidal ideation in patients with depression is unclear. Methods: This retrospective study involved 301 patients ≥ 22 years old hospitalized for depression between July 2018 and November 2020 at Renmin Hospital […]