Validity of short-term assessment of risk and treatability in the Japanese Forensic Probation Service

This study aimed to evaluate the predictive validity and reliability of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) in the context of the Japanese forensic probation service. START is a structured professional judgement guide for risk domains concerning negative behaviors such as violence, self-harm, suicide, substance abuse, unauthorized leave, victimization, and self-neglect. In this […]

One-week suicide risk prediction using real-time smartphone monitoring: Prospective cohort study

Background Suicide is a major global public health issue that is becoming increasingly common despite preventive efforts. Though current methods for predicting suicide risk are not sufficiently accurate, technological advances provide invaluable tools with which we may evolve toward a personalized, predictive approach. Objective We aim to predict the short-term (1-week) risk of suicide by […]

Risk detection and suicide prevention in the workplace (IN: Davidson, J.E., Richardson, M. (Eds)., Workplace Wellness: From Resiliency to Suicide Prevention and Grief Management)

Suicide is a serious public health problem, a leading cause of death in the United States overall and the fourth leading cause for work-age Americans of 16–64 years. Among health care professionals, research finds elevated suicide risk among certain disciplines, including physicians and nurses. The impact of suicide encompasses emotional, health, and fiscal burdens of […]

Effects of community-based caring contact in reducing thwarted belongingness among postdischarge young adults with self-harm: Randomized controlled trial

Background: For patients with self-harm behaviors, the urge to hurt themselves persists after hospital discharge, leading to costly readmissions and even death. Hence, postdischarge intervention programs that reduce self-harm behavior among patients should be part of a cogent community mental health care policy. Objective: We aimed to determine whether a combination of a self-help mobile […]

Beyond human expertise: The promise and limitations of ChatGPT in suicide risk assessment

ChatGPT, an artificial intelligence language model developed by OpenAI, holds the potential for contributing to the field of mental health. Nevertheless, although ChatGPT theoretically shows promise, its clinical abilities in suicide prevention, a significant mental health concern, have yet to be demonstrated. To address this knowledge gap, this study aims to compare ChatGPT’s assessments of […]

Mental health nurses’ attitudes towards risk assessment: An integrative systematic review

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Risk assessment and risk management are considered to be important practices carried out by mental health nurses. Risk assessment can help keep mental health service users’ safe, but some nurses see it as a ‘tick the box’ exercise. Some studies have looked at nurses’ attitudes to risk assessment but […]

Suicide risk assessments: A scientific and ethical critique

There are widely held premises that suicide is almost exclusively the result of mental illness and there is “strong evidence for successfully detecting and managing suicidality in healthcare” (Hogan and Grumet, 2016). In this context, ‘zero-suicide’ policies have emerged, and suicide risk assessment tools have become a normative component of psychiatric practice. This essay discusses […]

ChatGPT for suicide risk assessment on social media: Quantitative evaluation of model performance, potentials and limitations

This paper presents a novel framework for quantitatively evaluating the interactive ChatGPT model in the context of suicidality assessment from social media posts, utilizing the University of Maryland Reddit suicidality dataset. We conduct a technical evaluation of ChatGPT’s performance on this task using Zero-Shot and Few-Shot experiments and compare its results with those of two […]

Toward automatic risk assessment to support suicide prevention

Background: Suicide has been considered an important public health issue for years and is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Despite prevention strategies being applied, the rate of suicide has not changed substantially over the past decades. Suicide risk has proven extremely difficult to assess for medical specialists, and traditional methodologies deployed have been […]

Combining psychological theory with language models for suicide risk detection (IN Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023, edited by A. Vlachos & I. Augenstein)

With the increased awareness of situations of mental crisis and their societal impact, online services providing emergency support are becoming commonplace in many countries. Computational models, trained on discussions between help-seekers and providers, can support suicide prevention by identifying at-risk individuals. However, the lack of domain-specific models, especially in low-resource languages, poses a significant challenge […]

An efficient landmark model for prediction of suicide attempts in multiple clinical settings

Growing evidence has shown that applying machine learning models to large clinical data sources may exceed clinician performance in suicide risk stratification. However, many existing prediction models either suffer from “temporal bias” (a bias that stems from using case-control sampling) or require training on all available patient visit data. Here, we adopt a “landmark model” […]

Implicit identification with death detects and predicts short-term suicide risk among adolescents discharged from the emergency room

Background Implicit identification with death, measured by the Death–Suicide-Implicit Association Test (D/S-IAT), has been found to predict long-term suicide risk among adolescents. However, previous studies did not examine the predictive utility of D/S-IAT on short-term suicide risk trajectories among adolescents, especially during the critical period following discharge from the emergency room (ER) due to suicide […]

Resting state EEG correlates of suicide ideation and suicide attempt

Suicide is a global phenomenon that impacts individuals, families, and communities from all income groups and all regions worldwide. While it can be prevented if personalized interventions are implemented, more objective and reliable diagnostic methods are needed to complement interview-based risk assessments. In this context, electroencephalography (EEG) might play a key role. We systematically reviewed […]

Suicide risk assessment and suicide risk management protocol for the Texas Youth Depression and Suicide Research Network

Introduction Suicide prevention research is a national priority, and national guidance includes the development of suicide risk management protocols (SRMPs) for the assessment and management of suicidal ideation and behavior in research trials. Few published studies describe how researchers develop and implement SRMPs or articulate what constitutes an acceptable and effective SRMP. Methods The Texas […]

Development and validation of a model for predicting the risk of suicide in patients with cancer

Objective: The objective of this study was to establish a nomogram model to predict SI in patients with cancer and further evaluate its performance. Method: This study was performed among 390 patients in oncology departments of Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from April 2020 to January 2021. Of these, eligible patients who were diagnosed with cancer were […]

Assessment and management of suicide risk in primary care

Background: Risk assessment and management of suicidal patients is emphasized as a key component of care in specialist mental health services, but these issues are relatively unexplored in primary care services. Aims: To examine risk assessment and management in primary and secondary care in a clinical sample of individuals who were in contact with mental health services and […]

The effects of suicide ideation assessments on urges to self-harm and suicide

Background: Participants’ safety is the primary concern when conducting research with suicidal or potentially suicidal participants. The presence of suicide risk is often an exclusion criterion for research participants. Subsequently, few studies have examined the effects of research assessments on study participants’ suicidality. Aims: The purpose of this research was to examine the patterns of postassessment changes […]

Ethical issues relevant to the assessment of suicide risk in nonclinical research settings

Background: Our laboratory recently confronted this issue while conducting research with undergraduate students at the University of Waterloo (UW). Although our main objective was to examine cognitive and genetic features of individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), the study protocol also entailed the completion of various self-report measures to identify participants deemed at increased risk for […]

Crisis concept re-loaded? The recently described suicide-specific syndromes may help to better understand suicidal behavior and assess imminent suicide risk more effectively

Background: Despite of the decreasing suicide rates in many countries, suicide is still a major public health concern worldwide. Traditional suicide risk factors have limited clinical predictive value, as they provide little reliable information on the acute psychological processes leading to suicide. Aims: The aim of this analysis is to describe and compare the recently introduced two […]

Suicidal behavior on Axis VI: Clinical data supporting a sixth Axis for DSM-V

Background: Oquendo and colleagues (Oquendo, Baca-García, Mann, & Giner, 2008; Oquendo & Currier, 2009) recommend that DSM-V emphasize suicide risk assessment on a sixth axis, thereby increasing regularity of suicide risk assessments. Aims: We propose that evidence of nonredundancy with Axis V – Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is one piece of data that can serve as […]

Improving risk assessment with suicidal patients: A preliminary evaluation of the clinical utility of the Scale for Impact of Suicidality-Management, Assessment and Planning of Care (SIS-MAP)

Background: Although a number of suicide-risk assessment tools are available to clinicians, the high levels of suicide still evident in society suggest a clear need for new strategies in order to facilitate the prevention of suicidal behaviors. Aims: The present study examined the utilization of a new structured clinical interview called the Scale for Impact of Suicidality […]

Evaluation of the reliability and validity of two clinician-judgment suicide risk assessment instruments

Background: This study evaluates the psychometric properties and factor structure of two clinician-judgment suicide risk assessment instruments–the Suicide Assessment Checklist developed by Yufit and the other developed by Rogers. Methods: As an archival study, 85 client records were obtained through a university psychology clinic. Results: Internal consistency was high for only one subscale of the Yufit checklist after […]

The adaptation of a measure of confidence in assessing, formulating, and managing suicide risk

Background: To date little has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of suicide risk formulation training. Aims: We aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a new scale measuring clinicians’ confidence in assessing, formulating, and managing suicide risk. Method: A total of 128 mental health practitioners from an UK National Health Service Trust completed the scale. Of them, 85 from […]