Interventions for critical incident stress in emergency medical services: A qualitative study.

Controversy over the use of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing leaves Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations with little direction in preventing sequelae of Critical Incident Stress (CIS) in their employees. Objectives of the study were to explore and describe Emergency Medical Technicians’ (EMTs) experiences of critical incidents and views about potential interventions, in order to facilitate […]

From Critical Incident Stress to Police Suicide: Prevention Through Mandatory Academy and On-the-Job Training Programs (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

This chapter examines the practical side of dealing proactively with the stress encountered by police officers on a daily basis, stress that when dismissed as part of the job generates disastrous outcomes. The specific emphasis is on understanding critical incident stress & its impact. A practical outline of mandatory training, both at the academy & […]

The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Employee Assistance Program Response to Suicide (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s internal employee assistance program has a proactive approach to suicide prevention & response, including a standard of care & a suicide response protocol. Factors that contribute to the suicide of an agent include depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, frustration, firearms, & management response. Suicide in the Federal Bureau of Investigation is […]

Suicide Postvention for law Enforcement Personnel (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

This chapter focusses on postvention. Postvention services include play therapy for children, professional supportive counselling for individuals most affected, professional psychoeducational group counselling, & peer counselling. Specific postvention procedures are presented. JA

Contamination of cop: Secondary Traumatic Stress of Officers Responding to Civilian Suicides (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

Because police response to civilian suicide is uncharted territory for the field of mental health, the authors drew from 3 well-researched areas to develop a model: secondary traumatic stress, critical incidents in law enforcement, & suicide in the helping professions. A questionnaire was completed by 103 sworn personnel & 3 modes of assessment determined patterns […]

Police Reactions to Suicide by cop (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

Suicide-by-cop represents a currently understudied & most probably under-reported phenomenon that deserves serious attention. Police officers are involved in situations in which they not only lose control of the confrontation, but also become the means to the end in a civilian’s death. The phenomenon can be examined from a social psychological perspective by considering the […]

Victim-Precipitated Homcide: Incident and Aftermath (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

This chapter presents & discusses a set of training materials for police departments aimed at helping police officers cope with victim-precipitated homicide. Materials focus on providing officers with a range of intervention strategies to attempt to reduce the risk associated with these situations for both the officer & the perpetrator. These strategies are intended to […]

Suicide of a Chief Executive Officer: Implications for Intervention (IN: Suicide and law Enforcement, ed. by D Sheehan and J Warren)


Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention at the Work Place

This article discusses violence & suicide at the work place & strategies for responding to the same.(5 refs.)

Assessment, Crisis Intervention, and Trauma Treatment: the Integrative ACT Intervention Model

Crisis Intervention After the Tsunami in Phuket and Khao Lak

The Role of Policy in Creating a Supportive Social Context for the Management of Loss Experiences and Critical Incidents in School Communities


Critical Incident Stress Awareness for Leaders

The Family Debriefing Model: an Adapted Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for Parents and Older Sibling Suicide Survivors

In this article, the Family Debriefing Model is described. The Family Debriefing Model combines solution-focused interventions with an adapted Critical Incident Stress Debriefing model & was specifically designed to facilitate treatment with parents & adult- & adolescent-siblings who survive a family member’s suicide. The efficacy of the Model is examined through a series of reported […]

An Integrative Approach to Industrial Trauma Within Emergency Service Occupations

This article discusses the treatment of a police officer with a number of complaints secondary to psychological trauma that he suffered in performing his basic duties within a branch of the United States military, using 2 cognitive-behavioral approaches to the reduction of emotional trauma. The patient’s recurring nightmare in which he was put on trial […]

The Death of a Co-Worker: Institutional and Personal Responses


A Community Response to Youth Suicides: West Carleton, Ontario

This manuscript is the West Carleton, Ontario’s community response to youth suicides. The manuscript serves as a community development guide to bereavement after suicide by discussing various forms of postvention. This manuscript is useful to anyone dealing with suicide in the community. (AK)

Can Debriefing Work? (IN: Psychological Debriefing: Theory, Practice and Evidence, ed. by B Raphael and J P Wilson)

This chapter reviews influences on the evaluation of debriefing, including military psychiatry, crisis intervention, Marshall’s narrative tradition, psychoeducation, grief counseling, group psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychopharmacology, and catharsis. A framework for synthesis is presented, and possible theoretical bases for the effects of debriefing are explored. (34 refs)

Suicide First Response: a Training Manual for Professionals who Respond to Suicides

The goal of this training manual is to focus on primary & secondary survivors as well as the tertiary victims who must deal with the aftermath of suicide. First, it focuses on ways in which tertiary victims – the professionals who respond to the scene of a suicide – impact primary survivors such as parents, […]

Living With Grief After Sudden Loss: Suicide, Homicide, Accident, Heart Attack, Stroke


Suicide and law Enforcement: is Suicide Intervention a Necessary Part of Police Training?

This presentation examined suicide as a significant public health problem & police suicide was addressed as a specific problem for law enforcement agencies. A comprehensive crisis response model & a results-driven suicide intervention training program were described to assist law enforcement agencies with the problem of suicide. All police organizations were encouraged to develop policy […]

On the Front Lines: EAPs Battle Workplace Violence

Reprinted from “Employee Assistance”, v.6, no.7, February 1994.

Critical Incident Stress: a Normal Response to an Abnormal Situation

Reprinted from “Australian Nursing Journal”, February 1995.