The indirect effect of perceived burdensomeness on the relationship between indices of social support and suicide ideation in college students

Objective: Research has demonstrated that a lack of social support is related to suicide risk. This study examines perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, as mechanisms of the social support–suicide relationship in college students. Method: The study consisted of 207 students from a Midwestern university. Data were collected from 2007 to 2008. Two […]

Substance use frequency relates to suicidal ideation through perceived burdensomeness and to suicide attempts through capability for suicide

Background Although substance use has been linked to both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the factors underlying these relations remain unclear. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (ITS) provides a framework for understanding how substance use may increase suicide risk. The purpose of the current study was to examine if frequency of substance use is indirectly […]

Comfort expressing emotions and suicide ideation: Evidence of indirect effects via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness

Objective Emotion regulation strategies and related constructs have been implicated both as risk and protective factors in a range of mental health outcomes among young adults. To expand upon this previous research, we examined comfort expressing four discrete emotions (i.e., love, happiness, sadness, and anger) as factors that protect against suicide ideation in young adults, […]

The prospective relation between borderline personality disorder symptoms and suicide risk: The mediating roles of emotion regulation difficulties and perceived burdensomeness

Background Despite the strong link between borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms and suicide risk, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Theory-driven research clarifying the pathways through which BPD symptoms increase suicide risk over time is needed and may highlight relevant treatment targets for decreasing suicide risk among individuals with heightened BPD symptoms. […]

Relationship of self-compassion, hope, and emotional control to perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation

Background: Cultivating positive feelings of self in relationships with others can affect perceptions of belongingness and burdensomeness. Aims: The present study examines the relationships of self-compassion, hope, and emotional control to thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal ideation. Method: Participants were 481 college students who completed scales measuring self-compassion, hope, emotional control, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal ideation. Results: Correlation and […]

Integrating the interpersonal theory of suicide into the relations between cyber-victimization and suicidality among adolescents: A short-term prospective study

The relation between cyber-victimization and suicidality among adolescents has been well documented; however, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been well investigated. Drawing upon the interpersonal theory of suicide, this study aimed to examine the mediating mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) underlying longitudinal, bidirectional relations between cyber-victimization and suicidal ideation/attempts among adolescents […]

Suicide ideation and thwarted interpersonal needs among psychiatric inpatients: A network approach

We aimed to demonstrate the utility of an item-level network analysis approach to suicide risk by testing the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) among 402 psychiatric inpatients. We hypothesized that specific thwarted belongingness (TB) or perceived burdensomeness (PB; Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire items) facets would positively relate to passive or active suicide ideation and that […]

The moderating role of pessimism in the association between retrospective relational peer victimization, interpersonal risk factors, and suicide ideation

Peer victimization (PV) is a serious concern for youth and is associated with subsequent suicide ideation in young adulthood. The interpersonal theory of suicide may provide a framework for understanding suicide ideation in this population. Specifically, thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB) have been significantly associated with suicide ideation among young adults with a […]

Hoarding and depression: The mediating role of perceived burdensomeness

Despite clear indications that hoarding behaviors contribute to social isolation and strained family relationships, no research to date has examined the associations between hoarding and several important interpersonal constructs (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Moreover, no research has examined how these various interpersonal needs may account for the associations between symptoms of hoarding and […]

Better off with you: Exploring congruity between caregivers’ and Veterans’ experience of efforts to cope with suicide

The interpersonal theory of suicide posits people are more likely to consider suicide when they perceive themselves as alone and as a burden. However, there is limited research on whether these self-perceptions reflect caregiver experiences. As part of a larger study of collaborative safety planning, 43 Veteran/caregiver dyads (N = 86 individuals) completed measures of belongingness and […]

Ethnic identity and suicide risk among Hispanic/Latinx young adults: The impact of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness

Hispanic/Latinx college students experience SI/behaviors at high rates, yet there is a dearth of research on suicide risk and sociocultural correlates of suicide risk among Hispanic/Latinx individuals. This study examined the impact of ethnic identity on suicide risk among 63 Hispanic/Latinx young adults. Further, we tested a model in which ethnic identity is integrated into […]

Burden, belonging, and homelessness: Disclosure and social network differences among LGBTQ youth recruited from a suicide crisis service provider

Among LGBTQ youth, suicidality and homelessness occur at heightened rates. Using the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS), this study seeks to explore the associations of having a parent, family member, friend, or romantic partner in one’s social network and not being “out” to specific network members (lack of disclosure) with ITS constructs (perceived burdensomeness and […]

Is perceived burdensomeness present in the lives of famous suicides? A lack of support for the interpersonal theory of suicide

The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide is the result of three constructs: perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belonging, and the acquired capability for suicide. To explore the presence of these constructs in suicides, two raters read 72 summaries of biographies of famous suicide for the extent to which each construct was present. Only 11 […]

The geriatric feelings of burdensomeness scale (GFBS)

Objectives: The present article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Geriatric Feelings of Burdensomeness Scale using two samples of older adults collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk. The scale is a 25-item measure of general subjective feeling of being a burden on or problem for others. The goal of the measure is to capture […]

The cost of being apart: The contribution of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness to suicide ideation among Israeli older adults

Older adults have the highest suicide rates of all age groups in most industrialized countries. However, research concerning psychological risk factors for suicide among older adults is sparse. Thus, our study aimed to examine the contribution of perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB) to suicide ideation (SI) among older adults. Participants included 160 Israeli […]

Interpersonal predictors of suicide ideation and complicated-grief trajectories among suicide bereaved individuals: A four-year longitudinal study

Background Survivors of suicide loss (suicide survivors) are recognized as an at-risk population for several psychiatric complications, including complicated grief (CG) and suicide ideation (SI). Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of interpersonal factors, such as thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, on distress and suicidality. However, no longitudinal study has examined the predictive values of […]

A test of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (thwarted belonging and burdensomeness) among firefighters in Tehran

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interpersonal theory of suicide in firefighters in Tehran. This research was based on an interpersonal suicide theory in understanding whether two variables of thwarted belonging and burdensomeness play an important role in suicidal thoughts of firefighters or not. Method: The present study was a quantitative and correlational […]

Comparison of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, capability for suicide, and suicidal ideation among heterosexual and sexual minority individuals in Mississippi

This study sought to compare risk factors for suicidal ideation among heterosexual and sexual minority college students from a previously understudied conservative region of the United States. Suicidal ideation, thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and capability for suicide were examined. It was found that PB was significantly higher among sexual minorities than heterosexual individuals, […]

The relationship between post-battle experiences and thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness in three United States military samples

Suicide rates within the military are elevated relative to the general population; however, research suggests that many of the suicide risk factors for military personnel are similar to the suicide risk factors for civilians. Given that many military specific experiences (e.g., number of deployments) are not considered robust predictors of either suicidal ideation or behavior, […]

Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness mediate the association between bullying and suicide ideation

Abstract. Background: Condemnatory reactions toward suicide are prevalent in Africa, yet no study has examined how society reacts to suicides from the perspective of suicide-bereaved persons. Aims: This qualitative study explored societal reactions to suicides so as to further our understanding of the problem in Ghana. Method: Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 45 close relations of 14 men who […]

The association of trait impulsivity and suicidal ideation and its fluctuation in the context of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide

Background Although the relationship of trait impulsivity and suicidal behavior is well established, its relationship with suicidal ideation and its fluctuation still remains unclear. Our aim is to examine (1) the relationship of trait impulsivity and suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) and (2) the association […]

Assessing longitudinal relationships among thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and eating disorder symptoms

Objective Past work has documented a cross‐sectional relationship between eating disorders (ED) and suicidality, but few studies have examined the directionality of this relationship. Informed by the interpersonal–psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), this study examines the bidirectional, longitudinal relationship between ED symptoms and two determinants of suicide ideation—thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB). Method […]

Perceived burdensomeness, fearlessness of death, and suicidality among deployed military personnel

The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits that the interaction of three elements is required for lethal suicidal behaviors: the perception that one is a burden on others, the perception that one does not belong, and fearlessness about death combined with high pain tolerance (termed “acquired capability” for suicide). Although an ever expanding research base supports […]