Although organizational scholars have long been interested in employees’ well‐being and occupational health, less work has focused specifically on suicide behaviors among employees. This dearth of research is concerning given that individuals spend a significant portion of their waking hours at work, and suicide deaths among American workers are on the rise. To encourage the study of work and suicide with the intent of ultimately reducing mortality, we first provide a theoretical framework that incorporates two eminent theories of suicide: interpersonal‐psychological theory of suicide and psychache theory of suicide. We then report the findings of an interdisciplinary systematic literature review that offers an overview of current research related to work and suicide, including antecedent, mediating, and moderating effects. The results of our systematic literature review are presented via the lens of our theoretical framework, supporting that it is an appropriate perspective to understand the relation of work and suicide. Finally, we conclude by identifying avenues for continued research on the interplay between work and suicide, again incorporating these research directions into our theoretical framework. Together, our manuscript integrates multiple domains of research, while addressing a timely and critical public health crisis that stems, in part, from employees’ workplace experiences.