Year: 2023 Source: Nutrients. (2023). 15, 1765. nu15071765 SIEC No: 20230860

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every year, more than 700 thousand people die from this cause. Therefore, suicide is a public health issue. The complex interaction between different factors causes suicide; however, depression is one of the most frequent factors in people who have attempted suicide. Several studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency may be a relevant risk factor for depression, and vitamin D supplementation has shown promising effects in the adjunctive treatment of this mood disorder. Among the beneficial mechanisms of vitamin D, it has been proposed that it may enhance serotonin synthesis and modulate proinflammatory cytokines since low serotonin levels and systemic inflammation have been associated with depression and suicide. The present narrative review shows the potential pathogenic role of vitamin D deficiency in depression and suicide and the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation to reduce their risk.