This study is the first comprehensive analysis to investigate the potential association between stock market fluctuations and attempted suicide events as measured by self-inflicted injuries treated in hospitalization. Using nationwide, 15-year population-based data from 1998 through 2012, we observe that the occurrences for the hospitalizations of attempted suicides are apparently predicted by stock price movements. A low stock price index, a daily fall in the stock index, and consecutive daily falls in the stock index have been shown to be associated with increased risk of hospitalization in patients with attempted suicide. More specifically, stock price index is found to be significant impact on attempted suicide in the 45–54 age groups of both genders, whilst daily change is significant for both genders in the 25–34 and 55–64 age groups and accumulated change is only significant in female aged 25–44 and above 65. On the basis of the results, relevant organizations should consider the suicidal factors that relate prime-working-age and near-retirement-age people to better carry out specific suicide prevention measures, and, meanwhile, encourage those people to pay less attention towards daily stock price movements.