Suicidal ideation among Lebanese adolescents: Scale validation, prevalence and correlates
Chahine, M., Salame, P., Haddad, C., Sacre, H., Soufia, M., Akel, M., ... & Hallit, S.
In addition to the unstable political situation, Lebanon had experienced a cycle of wars, local armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, and crises (lack of clean water, recurrent power failure, and waste mismanagement, in addition to the growing number of unemployed people, as the number of Syrian refugees has dramatically increased, and led to competition for jobs with locals. All these factors make the Lebanese population prone to mental disorders, particularly suicide, without clear management policies. This study aims to validate the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), and determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors among a Lebanese nationally representative sample of adolescents from 9th to 12th grades.
Participants were 1810 adolescents who enrolled in this cross-sectional study (January–May 2019), using a proportionate random sample of schools from all Lebanese Mohafazat. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale was used to screen for suicidal ideation.
The results showed that 28.9% had some type of suicidal ideation [95% CI 26.7–31.1%]. The CSSRS items converged on a one-factor solution, accounting for a total of 85.40% of the variance (αCronbach = 0.966). Higher psychological abuse (Beta = 0.041), child physical abuse (Beta = 0.030), alcohol dependence (Beta = 0.062), social fear (Beta = 0.028), victimization/bullying score (Beta = 0.028), impulsivity (Beta = 0.028) and internet addiction (Beta = 0.010) scores were significantly associated with higher suicidal ideation. Same applies to adolescents whose parents are separated compared to living together (Beta = 0.992) and in females compared to males (0.311). On another hand, a higher age (Beta = − 0.182) was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation.
This study provides insights about suicidal ideation among Lebanese adolescents and related risk factors, such as child psychological and physical abuse, alcohol use disorders, social fear, bullying and victimization, impulsivity, and internet addiction.