Introduction Suicide and substance use are prevalent problems among persons discharged from facilities. This study (1) articulated rates of substance-related suicide deaths among those discharged correctional, behavioral health, and healthcare facilities, and (2) identified factors associated with substance-related suicide deaths unique to, or generalizing across, facility discharge. Methods We used data from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Suicide deaths (N = 105,968) were aggregated from 2003 to 2017. Chi-square and independent samples t-tests were used to examine associations between drug/alcohol-related deaths and each correlate. Logistic regression was employed to identify the most robust substance-related suicide death-related factors. Results Suicide deaths were commonly marked as being substance-related: 69% from correctional institutions, 54% from behavioral health facilities, 45% from those not released from a facility, and 39% from healthcare facilities. Regression models indicated housing interruptions and interpersonal stressors increased odds of the suicide death being marked as substance-related across discharge categories. Each discharge category also had unique predictors, underscoring the need for tailored prevention. Conclusions Substance-related suicide deaths are particularly common among adults discharged from correctional and behavioral health facilities. Findings are discussed with respect to community-focused, discharge planning, and clinical care suicide prevention strategies.