Year: 2016 Source: The Lancet Psychiatry.(2014).1(1):63Ð72. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)70220-2 SIEC No: 20160173

The stressÐdiathesis model posits that suicide is the result of an interaction between state-dependent (environmental) stressors and a trait-like diathesis or susceptibility to suicidal behaviour, independent of psychiatric disorders. Findings from post-mortem studies of the brain and from genomic and in-vivo neuroimaging studies indicate a biological basis for this diathesis, indicating the importance of neurobiological screening and interventions, in addition to cognitive and mood interventions, in the prevention of suicide. Early-life adversity and epigenetic mechanisms might explain some of the link between suicide risk and brain circuitry and neurochemistry abnormalities. Results from a range of studies using diverse designs and post-mortem and in-vivo techniques show impairments of the serotonin neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamicÐpituitaryÐadrenal axis stress-response system in the diathesis for suicidal behaviour. These impairments manifest as impaired cognitive control of mood, pessimism, reactive aggressive traits, impaired problem solving, over-reactivity to negative social signs, excessive emotional pain, and suicidal ideation, leading to suicidal behaviour. Biomarkers related to the diathesis might help to inform risk-assessment procedures and treatment choice in the prevention of suicide.