Background: Several recent trials indicate low-dose ketamine produces rapid antidepressant effects. However, uncertainty remains in several areas: dose response, consistency across patient groups, effects on suicidality, and possible biases arising from crossover trials. Conclusion: Low-dose ketamine appears more effective than very low dose. There is substantial heterogeneity in clinical response, with remission among one-fifth of patients at 1 week but most others having benefits that are less durable. Larger, longer term parallel group trials are needed to determine if efficacy can be extended and to further assess safety.