Objective: To determine the degree of risk during the first year after diagnosis with a mental illness. Methods: We used propensity scoring to create a matched sample for all identified suicide attempts and suicide deaths in the province of Manitoba from 1996 to 2009. This study identified 2100 suicide deaths and 8641 attempted suicides. Three control subjects were identified for every case and matched on age, sex, income decile, region of residence, and marital status. Five categories of physician-diagnosed mental disorders were tested: schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, dementia, and substance abuse. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk for suicide attempts and suicide deaths overall, and within 3 time periods since initial diagnosis: 1 to 90 days, 91 to 364 days, and 365 or more days. Conclusions: These data suggest that several mental disorders independently increase the risk of suicide attempts and death by suicide after controlling for all mental disorders and demographic risk factors. Clinicians should be aware of the heightened risk of suicide and suicidal behaviour within the first 3 months after initial diagnosis.
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