Year: 2015 Source: The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry.(2015):1-23.Published online 30 July 2015.DOI:10.3109/15622975.2015.1054879 SIEC No: 20150402

Objectives. Suicidal behaviour (SB) entered the DSM-5, underlying a specific biological vulnerability. Then, recent findings suggested a possible role of the immune system in SB pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to present these main immune factors involved in SB pathogenesis. Methods. We conducted a review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis criteria, and combined (ÒInflammationÓ) AND (ÒSuicidal ideationÓ OR ÒSuicidal attemptÓ OR ÒsuicideÓ). Results. Post mortem studies demonstrated associations between suicide and inflammatory cytokines in the orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region involved in suicidal vulnerability. Also, microgliosis and monocyteÐmacrophage system activation may be a useful marker of suicide neurobiology. Kynurenine may influence inflammatory processes, and related molecular pathways may be involved in SB pathophysiology. Few recent studies associated inflammatory markers with suicidal vulnerability: serotonin dysfunction, impulsivity and childhood trauma. Interestingly, the perception of threat that leads suicidal individuals to contemplate suicide may activate biological stress responses, including inflammatory responses. Conclusions. Translational projects would be crucial to identify a specific marker in SB disorders, to investigate its clinical correlations, and the interaction between inflammatory cytokines and monoamine systems in SB. These researches might lead to new biomarkers and novel directions for therapeutic strategies.