This study assesses the complex impact of risk and protective factors on suicide mortality in the Ukrainian general population. Data on suicide rates and socioeconomic and medical factors were obtained from the Ukrainian State Statistical Office, WHO, and the European Social Survey. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Religion and education were negatively associated with suicide. The relationship between drug addiction/alcoholism and suicide was positive. The association between urbanization and suicide mortality was negative. The relationship between gross regional product (GRP) and female suicide was slightly negative. Religiosity was the protective factor most strongly linked with suicide mortality followed by urbanization. The harmful role of drug addiction and alcoholism was confirmed. The role of education and GRP is controversial. No striking gender differences were found.