Deliberate self-harm (and attempted suicide).
The lifetime prevalence of deliberate self-harm is about 3% to 5% of the population in Europe and the USA, and has been increasing. Familial, biological, and psychosocial factors may contribute. Risks are higher in women and young adults, people who are socially isolated or deprived, and people with psychiatric or personality disorders. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cognitive therapy; continuity of care; dialectical behavioural therapy; emergency card; flupentixol depot injection; general practice-based guidelines; hospital admission; intensive outpatient follow-up plus outreach; mianserin; nurse-led case management; oral antipsychotics; paroxetine; problem-solving therapy; psychodynamic interpersonal therapy; and telephone contact.
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