This study utilized an ecological framework to explore the role of 4 culturally relevant protective factors, reasons for living, Afrocentric worldview, family support, and friend support, in protecting Black American college students from suicidal behavior. Participants were 289 Black American college students. We hypothesized that these 4 culturally relevant factors would exert indirect protective effects on suicidal behavior through their association with reduced depressive symptoms. Results indicated that reasons for living, perceived supportive behaviors from family, and Afrocentric worldview exerted indirect protective effects on suicidal behaviors through their negative associations with depressive symptoms. The mediation effect from friend support to depression and suicidal behavior was not significant.