Previous studies have shown an association between low concentration of serum cholesterol, as well as high concentration of serum cortisol, in suicide behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether men after a violent suicide attempts have different serum cholesterol and cortisol concentrations than those who attempted suicide by non-violent methods. Venous blood samples were collected within 24 hours of admission, to study concentrations of serum cholesterol and cortisol. The sample consisted of 31 male subjects suffering from schizophrenia, admitted in a general hospital after suicide attempt, and was compared with 15 schizophrenic nonsuicidal male controls. Patients with a violent suicidal attempt were found to have significantly lower cholesterol levels and significantly higher cortisol level than patients with non-violent attempts and the control subjects. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts should not be considered a homogenous group. The hypothesis of an association of violent suicidal attempts and peripheral biological markers (cholesterol and cortisol) was supported by our findings.