Source: 7p. SIEC No: 20000227

The article begins by stating the problem that many youths in the U.S. who have emotional problems and problems with behavior are often treated with a paradigm described as a “curriculum of control.” It states how previous literature focusses on the more negative aspects of deviant behavior in youth; which overlooks positive aspects in such individuals. This tendency to feel compelled to control such behaviors is entrenched in the traditions of Western Civilization, according to the author. A table showing the contrast of “Native American Empowerment Values” vs. “Western Civilizations Patriarchal Values” in the area of “Foundations of Self Esteem” is presented. The idea is that in utilizing some of the Native American beliefs, those treating youths can better deal with their emotional and behavioral problems. The model which draws from the Native American values of “belonging,” “mastery,” “independence,” & “generosity” is called “the circle of courage.” The article states the theory some deviant behavior stems from the need for relationships with others. A theory put forth in the article states how many behavioral problems are due to the “loss of the tribe.” Three models for facing and stopping problems rooted in alienation are discussed. The traditional Native American idea of using mastery as an instrument for teaching youth is discussed in terms of how it can be useful today. There are also “Two Competing Models of Motivations for Achievement.” The two models are “Task Involvement” & Egoistic Involvement.” Competition in learning is critisized in this paradigm of mastery. The traditional Native American belief of independence is discussed, illustrating how giving individual freedom to youth in the learning process fosters their development. Also illustrated was the traditional Native American value of generosity, stating the positive effects of volunteering and living free of materialism.