Year: 1998 Source: Forensic Science International, v.98, no.3, (December 21, 1998), p.143-149 SIEC No: 19990190

The special characteristics of black powder, such as slow & incomplete combustion, result in a soft and pusing action of black powder. Compared to nitrocellulose, the muzzle velocities are lower and large amounts of soot & powder grains travelling a considerable distance leave the muzzle. The range of the residues is greater and the powder grains tend to penetrate deeper into the dermis.