This Editorial notes that regarding violence as purely a sociological/law enforcement matter has led to unmitigated failure. The 1991 JAMA call for papers on any aspects of interpersonal violence which resulted in an outpouring of manuscripts, underscores that violence is also a medical/public health issue. 3 actions are recommended in response to this public health emergency. 12 papers appearing in the same JAMA issue are overviewed. Specific proposals are presented regarding use of firearms.