Year: 1992 Source: Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, v.20, no.1, (January 1992), p.35-43 SIEC No: 19920460

The author suggests that congruence between current counseling paradigms & successful counseling with Native Americans is dependent on understanding the psychological effects resulting from their coercive history. Disruptive influences have resulted in Native American youth continuing to be plagued by things such as suicide, drug-related deaths & unemployment. Current counseling paradigms do not include skills necessary for effective results, thus the basics for a new paradigm are offered.