Year: 1980 Source: Journal of Public Nursing and Mental Health Services, v.8, no.3, (March 1980), p.12-21 SIEC No: 19821072

Defines, & relates to illness & death, the terms hope, powerlessness, helplessness, & hopelessness. A lack of control leading to a sense of helplessness is argued to be central to the development of hopelessness, which in turn has been linked to sudden death. The implications for nursing include allowing patients control, keeping them informed, & expressing hope for them. 3 case studies are included for illustration, & suggestions for research are given. (15 refs.) (RM)