Year: 2022 Source: Archives of Suicide Research. (2022). 26(2), 846-860. SIEC No: 20220793
Objective The overall rate of suicide between 1999 and 2017 increased by 33% in the United States. We sought to examine suicide attempts in the trauma patient population, hypothesizing that in adult trauma patients race and lack of insurance status would be predictors of suicide attempt. Method The Trauma Quality Improvement Program (2010–2016) was queried for trauma patients ≥18 years old. The primary outcome was suicide attempt. A multivariable logistic regression model was performed including covariates that influence risk of suicide attempt. Results From 1,403,466 adult trauma admissions, 16,263 (1.2%) patients attempted suicide. Death after suicide attempt occurred in 30.2% of patients. Independent predictors of suicide attempt were age < 40 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.41, 1.51], p < .001) and no insurance (OR = 1.92, 95% CI [1.85, 2.00], p < .001). Black (vs. White) race was associated with decreased risk of suicide attempt (OR = 0.63, 95% CI [0.60, 0.67], p < .001). Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic) patients demonstrated lower associated risk of suicide attempt by gun (OR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.45, 0.54], p < .001), while Asian (vs. White) patients exhibited higher risk of suicide attempt overall (OR = 1.25, 95% CI [1.12, 1.39], p < .001) and more specifically by knife (OR = 2.55, 95% CI [2.16, 3.00], p < .001). Conclusions Age younger than 40 years and lack of insurance were associated with higher risk of suicide attempt in adult trauma patients. Asian race was associated with the highest risk of suicide, with >2.5 times increased risk of attempt by knife. Awareness of these demographic-specific risk factors for suicide attempt, and in particular violent mechanisms of suicide attempt, is critical to implementation of effective suicide prevention efforts.