Year: 2020 Source: Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine. (2020). 1-10. Published online 20 January 2020. doi: 10.1017/cem.2019.470. SIEC No: 20200117

To determine the incidence, risk, and timing of mortality (unnatural and natural causes) among youth seen in a pediatric emergency department (ED) for mental health concerns, compared with matched non-mental health ED controls.

This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at a quaternary pediatric ED in British Columbia. All visits for a mental health related condition between July 1st, 2005, and June 30th, 2015, were matched on age, sex, triage acuity, socioeconomic status, and year of visit to a non-mental health control visit. Mortality outcomes were obtained from vital statistics data through December 31st, 2016 (cumulative follow-up 74,390 person-years).

Among all cases in our study, including 6,210 youth seen for mental health concerns and 6,210 matched controls, a total of 13 died of suicide (7.5/100,000 person-years) and 33 died of suicide or indeterminate causes (44/100,000 person-years). All-cause mortality was significantly lower among mental health presentations (121.3/100,000 v. 214.5/100,000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.78). The median time from initial emergency visit to suicide was 5.2 years (interquartile range, 4.2-7.3). Among mental health related visits, risk of death by suicide or indeterminate cause was three-fold that of matched controls (HR, 3.05 95%CI, 1.37-6.77).

While youth seeking emergency mental health care are at increased risk of death by unnatural causes, their overall mortality risk is lower than non-mental health controls. The protracted duration from initial presentation to suicide highlights the need for long-term surveillance and preventative care for youth seen in the ED for all mental health concerns.