Novel psychiatric disorders following mild traumatic brain injury: A retrospective multivariable analysis with screening recommendations
Ballatori, A.M., Zargarian, A., Haddad, A., & Shahrestani, S.
OBJECTIVE Concussions are a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) that most commonly occur after blunt trauma to the head and may result in temporary loss of consciousness. These patients are typically comanaged by neurocritical care specialists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons depending on the severity of disease. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) evaluate how patient demographic characteristics impact the development of novel psychiatric disorders (NPDs) after mTBI; and 2) develop screening recommendations to identify patients with NPDs. METHODS The authors used data from the 2010–2019 National Readmissions Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Patients who were readmitted for mTBI within a year of their first admission between 2010 and 2019 were identified (n = 206,070). The association between patient demographic characteristics and the emergence of NPDs after mTBI was examined using multivariable binomial regression analysis. Density plots were used to examine diagnostic patterns for NPDs. RESULTS The mean ± SD age of all patients was 50.9 ± 26.2 years, and 43.9% of patients were female. Overall, an additional 818 (0.40%) patients were reported to have novel suicidal ideation (SI), 3866 (1.9%) novel depression, 3449 (1.7%) novel anxiety, and 88 (0.043%) novel homicidal ideation (HI) after mTBI. Younger age (OR 0.9775, 95% CI 0.9705–0.9848, p < 0.0001) and reduced Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score (OR 0.9155, 95% CI 0.8539–0.9774, p = 0.010) may predict novel SI, and female sex (OR 0.7464, 95% CI 0.6026–0.9214, p = 0.0069) may be inversely related to novel SI after mTBI. Also, multivariable analysis found that female sex (OR 1.1774, 95% CI 1.0654–1.3016, p = 0.0014) and Medicare/Medicaid insurance type (OR 0.9381, 95% CI 0.8983–0.9797, p = 0.0039) may predict novel anxiety after mTBI. Similarly, younger age (OR 0.9956, 95% CI 0.9923–0.9989, p = 0.0096), higher CCI score (OR 1.0363, 95% CI 1.0099–1.0629, p = 0.0062), and Medicare/Medicaid insurance type (OR 0.9386, 95% CI 0.8998–0.9789, p = 0.0032) may predict novel depression. Lastly, female sex (OR 0.3271, 95% CI 0.1467–0.6567, p = 0.0031) and increased median income (OR 0.8829, 95% CI 0.7930–0.9944, p = 0.049) were inversely proportional to novel HI after mTBI. The median time to diagnosis of NPD was 69.5 days for depression, 66.5 days for anxiety, 70.0 days for SI, and 66.5 days for HI. CONCLUSIONS Numerous patient demographic factors are significant predictors of the development of NPDs after mTBI and concussion. Screening for NPDs within 3 weeks and 3 months after mTBI may identify most patients at risk for developing novel postconcussive psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, depression, HI, and SI. Further studies are warranted to understand how patient demographic characteristics should dictate medical management and screening after mTBI and concussion.