Multiple types of somatic pain increase suicide attempts and depression: A nationwide community sample of Korean adults
Park, M.J., Choi, K.W., Na, E.J., Hong, J.P., Cho, M.J., Fava, M., ... & Jeon, H.J.
Somatic pain is an important risk factor for suicide and suicidal behaviors. However, the association between the number of somatic pain conditions and lifetime suicide attempts (LSA) has not been well established yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine associations between LSA and multiple somatic pain (MSP), singe pain, and no pain in a nationwide survey.
A total of 12,532 adults were randomly selected from the population using the one-person-per-household method. Each participant completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) with Suicide Module, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11). The MSP was defined as pain in two or more parts of one’s body, including abdominal pain, back pain, arthralgia, arm or leg pain, chest pain, headache, menstrual pain, dysuria, genital pain, and other pain.
Among 12,532 subjects, 858 (6.85%) had MSP. Among the three groups (MSP, single pain, and no pain) of subjects, the MSP group had higher percentages of females, those with lower education, and divorced/widowed/separated individuals. However, there were no significant differences in monthly income or residence among the three groups. The MSP group showed four times higher suicide attempts and six times higher multiple attempts than did the no pain group. The BIS total score of the MSP group was the highest among the three groups. Genital pain showed the highest odds ratio for LSA. The higher the number of somatic pain, the higher the odds ratios were for LSA, major depressive disorder (MDD), and anxiety disorders. Subjects having both MSP and MDD showed a significant association with LSA (AOR = 14.78, 95% CI 10.08–21.67, p < 0.001) compared to those having neither somatic pain nor MDD.
MSP was significantly associated with LSA. It had greater prevalence among individuals reporting a higher number of somatic pain conditions and comorbid MDD.