This study used data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey to examine the association between adolescent marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use and suicidal ideation and attempts over a period of six years (2011–2017), as attitudes and laws became more permissive of marijuana use. We used logistic regression to control for possible confounders, estimate marginal prevalence ratios (PR’s), and assess changes over time. Marijuana was more strongly associated with suicide attempts than ideation, and more frequent use was associated with significantly greater risk. The effect has not changed substantively since 2011, despite changing attitudes toward marijuana. Marijuana is broadly comparable to other substances: results for tobacco were similar, though frequent alcohol use had a significantly stronger association than other substances.