Year: 2019 Source: Psychiatry Research. (2017). 252, 57-62. SIEC No: 20190840

China is one of few countries which reported higher female suicide rates in the worldwide. However, little is known about the gender differences among Chinese rural suicide attempters. This study aims to analyze the gender differences among medically serious suicide attempters aged 15–54 years in rural China. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters and 791 controls aged 15–54 years in rural China. Socio-demographic, psychological and some critical variables were assessed in the interview. The results showed that all of the factors (education years, family suicide history, negative life events, social support, impulsivity and mental disorder) associated with male suicide attempters also could be found for females. Physical disease, mental disorder and pesticide ingestion played more roles on male suicide attempters. Ever married, peasant, religious belief, and less social support played more roles on female suicide attempters. Compared with male suicide attempters, female ones are mainly influenced by social factors. A gender-specific approach should be emphasized in suicide prevention.