Objective Self-burning is one way that some people choose to commit suicide, and it has been seen in many nations. This problem is considered as an uncommon method in developed countries and a common method of suicide in developing countries. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with self-burning among Iranian women in reproductive age. Method This case-control study was conducted among 228 (57 cases and 171 controls) women in reproductive age from the Imam Khomeini Hospital of Ilam. A self-report questionnaire was used to determine factors associated with self-burning, including job status, domestic violence, mental health status, education levels, smoking and alcohol use, forced marriage, socioeconomic status, drug history, and family history of self-burning. Data analysis was performed using simple and multiple logistic regression to control the effects of possible confounders. Results There was a significant positive association between self-burning and being unemployed and a housewife. Also, the presence of self-burning was increasingly associated with high domestic violence and having history of forced marriage and decreasingly associated with post-diploma education level and a high socioeconomic level. Conclusion It is recommended that health and social policy makers pay attention to the social and economic aspects that cause self-burning in women to prevent this problem.