This study aimed to evaluate direct and indirect effects of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS) on depression and current suicidal ideation through rumination and self-reflection in a sample of suicide attempters. Three hundred suicide attempters completed the Rumination/Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ), the Carver and White BIS/BAS scales, the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI), and the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II). Results revealed that the BAS and BIS had direct effects on suicidal ideation but not depression. Low BAS had an indirect effect on depression through decreased self-reflection. High BIS had an indirect effect on depression via increased rumination. Low BAS and high BIS had indirect effects on suicidal ideation through decreased self-reflection. The findings suggest that low BAS and high BIS may be associated with depression and suicidal ideation in suicide attempters who have decreased self-reflection and increased rumination. Also, increasing self-reflection and reducing rumination as respectively adaptive and maladaptive self-focused attention strategies may prohibit depression and suicidal ideation.