This study aims to investigate the lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors in a sample of Chinese migrant workers. It also examined the mediating role of alexithymia and social support in the link between childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors. A total of 1,563 migrant workers were surveyed by using cluster sampling. Results showed that the estimated lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among Chinese migrant workers was 12.8%, 8.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed a significant positive association between childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors; this association was partially mediated by social support. A significant path from childhood abuse through alexithymia and social support to suicidal behaviors was also established. Findings of this study emphasize the importance of social support and alexithymia in understanding the possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors and suggest possible avenues for suicide interventions.