Year: 2021 Source: Community Mental Health Journal. (2021). 57, 727–735. SIEC No: 20210224

This study estimated the associations between three categories of recent community criminal justice (CJ) involvement (arrest, parole, and probation) and suicide attempts, while accounting for how the categories overlap. Participants included adults aged ≥ 18 who completed the 2008–2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The outcome was self-reported suicide attempt(s) in the past 12 months (in the community or while incarcerated). Community CJ involvement included parole, probation, and/or arrest(s) during the past 12 months. Controls with no recent CJ involvement were matched to those with any recent involvement on demographics and education. We calculated the 12-month prevalence of suicide attempts for those reporting recent parole, probation, and arrest, including their overlaps. Logistic regression models estimated the associations between each category of recent CJ involvement and suicide attempts, controlling for their overlapping and covariates. There were 15,462 participants with recent community CJ involvement and 248,520 matched controls. The 12-month prevalence of suicide attempts was 3.2% for those with recent parole, 2.7% for probation, and 3.3% for arrest, which were all greater than the matched controls (1.0%, p < 0.001 for each). After controlling for overlapping and covariates, arrest was associated with suicide attempts (RR = 1.80, 99% CI 1.47–2.19), but neither parole (RR = 1.00, 99% CI 0.64–1.56) nor probation (RR = 0.81, 99% CI 0.61–1.08) were. Adults with recent arrest had higher risk of suicide attempts than those with parole, probation, or matched controls with no CJ involvement. Recent arrest may signify elevated risk and warrant increased screening and intervention.